IMAGE Soybean_Genetic_Resource01.gif






Table of Contents


Executive Summary




Priority Research to Increase Genetic Yield Potential


Priority Research for Seed Composition


Priority Research on Pest and Disease Resistance

Appendix A


Appendix B



On February 23rdand 24th, 2000, twenty-two expert researchers with knowledge of plant breeding, plant
physiology, plant pathology, entomology, nematology, molecular biology, functional genomics, and seed
composition participated in a workshop hosted by the United Soybean Board Production Committee. Over the
course of the two days, the scientists reached consensus on research priorities and time frames needed to

conduct the research when funded in the area of soybean genetic resources and genetic enhancement. These are
summarized below.

A. Genetic Yield Potential

1. Identify genomic locations of yield quantitative trait loci (QTL or genes) and determine the parental source
of positive alleles.
2. Validate yield QTL by evaluating their effect in other soybean breeding populations.
3. Identify and sequence yield genes, determine their function, and deploy appropriate transgenes.
4. Identify additional genetic variation for drought/heat tolerance.
5. Develop drought/heat screening protocols.
6. Discover QTL associated with drought tolerance.
7. Sequence drought/heat tolerance genes, determine their function, and deploy appropriate transgenes.

B. Seed Composition

1. Develop genetic resources and prototype germplasm to meet objectives of the Better Bean Initiative.
2. Characterize the molecular basis for changes in seed composition.
3. Identify and quantify the effect of environment on seed composition and the impact of altered seed
composition on agronomic performance.
4. Determine the value of altered genotypes on human and animal performance.

C. Pest and Disease Resistance

1. Conduct a comprehensive evaluation of elite and exotic germplasm collections for new pest resistance genes.
2. Develop more efficient strategies to evaluate pest resistance.
3. Identify the molecular, cellular, and organismal bases of host-pathogen interactions.
4. Identify and evaluate novel genes for resistance.
5. Improve durability of pest resistance.


Presently the annual increase in yield of soybean in the United States is one-half bushel per acre. At least half
of this increase is attributable to genetic improvement through breeding. As good as this accomplishment is, the
pace must continue or even accelerate to keep U.S. soybean production globally competitive and to meet the
demands of an increasing world population. Additionally, new traits will need to be incorporated into new
varieties. These include tolerance to climatic extremes, which may occur more frequently due to human
activity; resistance to emerging diseases, nematodes, and insects; and modified seed composition. Achieving
these goals will require a broader gene pool. Genetic diversity is the basis of a sustainable agriculture and
future improvements in soybean production. The genetic base of present soybean varieties in the United States
is very narrow. Currently grown U.S. soybean varieties derive more than 70% of their genes from seven
crosses that were made with nine unique parents. Soybean breeders have been extremely successful in
exploiting this narrow germplasm base and this should continue. In addition, it is imperative that new genes for
soybean improvement be identified and be made available so they can be readily incorporated into germplasm
for soybean improvement.

The National Plant Germplasm System, operated by the United States Department of Agriculture, includes the
soybean collection at Urbana, Illinois. This collection contains nearly 16,000 introduced accessions of Glycine
(domesticated soybeans), 1,100 accessions of Glycine soja(a close relative), and 1,000 accessions of
several perennial Glycine species (more distant relatives). These genetic resources play a major role in soybean
improvement and serve as the basis for introduction of new genes to improve productivity, crop quality, and to
increase resistance to diseases, pests, and stresses imposed by natural environments. Since 1992, nearly 3,000
accessions have been added from China and several hundred lines have been added from North Korea, Vietnam,

and Indonesia. Recent studies have shown that these Asian accessions have many desirable genes not currently
in North American soybean varieties.

Developing and maintaining markets for U.S. soybeans is a high priority. Soybeans may lose market share to
alternate sources of low-saturated vegetable oils if soybean oil composition is not improved. Compared to
canola, soybean oil is higher in saturated fatty acids, a health concern of many consumers. This concern may
increase if, as expected, FDA guidelines are approved for the inclusion of trans-isomers as a part of total
saturated fat on food product labels. Trans-isomers are produced during hydrogenation of vegetable oil, which
reduces linolenic acid levels. Without hydrogenation, soybean oil is not stable when subjected to high
temperatures, such as in frying applications. However, trans-fatty acids also are a health concern of many
consumers. In addition, demand in both food and feed markets is increasing for higher protein soybean meal
with greater digestibility, total metabolizable energy, and enhanced functionality in vegetable food applications.

New intensive soybean production practices implemented throughout the United States during the past half
century cause increased pressure from many disease pathogens, nematodes, and insects: with increasing
soybean acreage, soybeans now appear more frequently in a given field; soybeans are grown with reduced
tillage and frequently in higher plant densities; and new, more virulent genetic variants of already important
pathogens and nematodes cause increased incidence of disease. As a result, formerly minor pathogens and
nematodes are now economically important because they cause substantial yield loss. These are compelling
reasons to continue searching for new sources of host-plant resistance.

The time lines identified subsequently in this report refer to time required to accomplish the science.
Development of improved varieties based on these indings may require an additional five to seven years.


The U.S. soybean grower’s rapid adoption of improved genetics (new varieties) has contributed significantly to
the continued climb of U.S. average soybean yields. Although previous attempts to mine exotic germplasm for
yield genes has met with mixed results,the availability of new molecular tools and germplasm combined with
private/public-sector cooperation in field evaluation and use of winter season soybean nurseries should allow
for systematic identification of yield genes to enhance the rate of genetic improvement of soybean varieties.

Another way to address increased productivity is to reduce yield losses from abiotic stresses (from
environmental extremes). Current technology and new germplasm from Asia may allow development of
varieties with improved performance when grown under sub-optimal environmental conditions. In the United
States, drought and associated heat stress reduce soybean yields more than other abiotic stresses. Although
other stresses are regionally important and justify research, e.g.,iron and aluminum tolerance, flooding
tolerance, and cold tolerance, the primary goal of research to reduce abiotic stress is the development of the
genetic resources that will enhance the drought/heat tolerance and environmental stability of new varieties.

Successful completion of this research will result in germplasm with enhanced yield and stress tolerance for use
in development of elite varieties. This research will enhance breeding efficiency and maintain or accelerate
genetic improvement in seed yield under both optimal and sub-optimal production conditions.

A. Identify Yield Quantitative Trait Loci(Genes)

Yield is a complex trait involving many genes, each with a small effect. The genes conditioning a complex
trait, such as yield, are described as quantitative trait loci (QTL). Robust field evaluation for seed yield must be
combined with DNA marker analysis to identify genomic locations of yield QTL and to determine the parental
source of the positive alleles. The search for yield genes should include populations derived from matings of
modern U.S. varieties with modern Asian varieties and exotic plant introductions. Public and private
collaboration will allow yield testing of these populations in a wide range of environments. Another important
approach is the application of powerful genomic surveys with recently developed DNA markers to determine
the genetic differences between ancestral lines and current varieties (e.g., grandparents, parents, and offspring).
This research will identify ancestral alleles that were preferentially fixed by selection in modern varieties.
TIME LINE: 3-5 years

B. Validate Yield QTL

Newly identified yield QTL should be confirmed by evaluating their effect in other populations. In addition to
verifying the magnitude of the QTL’s breeding value and interaction with other yield genes, its stability in other
genetic backgrounds should be determined. This will provide proof of concept prior to investing resources to
introduce a yield QTL into multiple elite varieties.TIME LINE: 5-10 years

C. Sequence Yield Genes, Determine Their Function, and Deploy Transgenes

Once QTL affecting yield have been established, it will be important to identify and sequence the genes causing
the effects with the ultimate goal of relating allelic sequence with function (determine gene function).
Definitive identification of yield genes is a scientifically challenging feat, which is yet to be accomplished.
Nonetheless, it is vital to identify yield genes to permit the discovery of alternative and superior forms (alleles)
of these genes in the USDA Soybean Germplasm Collection and to guide the design or engineering of new
genes for increased seed yield. Introgression of useful transgenes is another approach to increase yield. Using
genes from other species or modifying genes in soybeans that can increase important plant functions should be
evaluated for ability to increase yield. TIME LINE: 5-10 years

D. Identify Additional Genetic Variation for Drought/Heat Tolerance

Some progress has been made in identification of plant introductions with slow wilting and drought tolerance in
the later maturity groups. However, there has been only limited evaluation of plant introductions in the earlier
maturity ranges. Because drought stress limits yield of soybeans in all production areas in the United States,
there is a need to identify drought tolerant improved germplasm across a range of maturities. These lines may
possess unique mechanisms of drought and heat tolerance. TIME LINE: 3 years

E. Develop Drought/Heat Screening Protocols

One of the major limitations to developing new varieties with improved drought and heat tolerance is the lack of
adequate methods for accurately screening large amounts of germplasm. Development of greenhouse, growth
chamber, and laboratory methods should be examined. Prior to application, these methods will require
validation for ability to predict field stress tolerance. TIME LINE: 3 years or less

F. Discover QTL Associated with Drought Tolerance

This research will combine the earlier outlined approach for discovery of yield QTL - robust field evaluation for
drought tolerance combined with QTL mapping of drought related traits in the newly identified germplasm
lines. This research will require cooperation among breeders and physiologists in the public sector and public
and private collaboration to achieve the field evaluation of these populations in a wide range of environments.
TIME LINE: 3-5 years

G. Sequence Drought/Heat Tolerance Genes, Determine Function, and Deploy Transgenes

Once QTL affecting heat/drought have been established, it will be important to identify and sequence the genes
causing these effects with the ultimate goal of relating allelic sequence with function. Like the genes
underlying yield QTL, the specific genes responsible for resistance to heat and drought will be difficult to
identify. Nonetheless, their identification is needed to discover additional useful genetic variation for stress
tolerance in the USDA Soybean Germplasm Collection. Introgression of useful transgenes is another approach
to enhance drought and heat tolerance. Using genes from other species or modifying genes from soybean that
can increase important plant functions should be evaluated for stress tolerance in the laboratory and field.
TIME LINE: 3-10 years



Recently, the United Soybean Board developed a strategic plan for a Better Bean Initiative. This plan calls for
accelerated development of soybeans with enhanced seed compositional traits to maximize human and animal
health benefits of food and feed with soybean ingredients. A lower saturated, naturally stable soybean oil
substitute for partially hydrogenated soy oil is needed to meet consumer demand. The ultimate goal is an oil
with 65-75% oleic acid, less than 3% linolenic acid, and less than 7% saturates, which would reduce trans-fatty
acids produced by hydrogenation, and improve oxidative and flavor stability of soybean oil. The Better Bean
Initiative also calls for accelerated development of soybean germplasm with superior meal attributes to reduce
the negative environmental impacts of livestock waste. Phosphorus and nitrogen excreted by livestock is a
growing concern. Proposed meal improvement includes enhancing amino acid balance and reducing
indigestible carbohydrates, increasing bioavailability of amino acids, and decreasing phytate phosphorous in
soybeans. The current amino acid targets suggest increased methionine and cystine for poultry rations and
increased lysine for swine rations. The initiative also calls for research to determine the impact of agronomic
practices, handling, and processing on targeted oil composition; and for the development of methods for timely
measurement of value-added characteristics of the Better Bean at first point of sale.

A. Develop Genetic Resources and Prototype Germplasm to Meet Objectives of the Better Bean

Innovative genetic approaches are needed to improve soybean oil and protein utilization to maintain or expand
the soybean market share. Although a number of these traits may already exist in the private sector, it is
important that they also be available in the public domain. Germplasm should be identified or created through
traditional or transgenic methods. This material will establish the genetic stocks required to achieve the
modification of soybean oil and protein composition to meet the objectives for the Better Bean Initiative and to
meet additional needs for specific end users.

The primary target compositions for soybean oil are:
i) A low-saturated substitute for partially hydrogenated soybean oil. Such an oil should ultimately
contain 65% oleic acid, less than 7% total saturated fatty acids, and less than 3% linolenic acid.
TIME LINE: < 3 years
ii) A low trans-fatty acid substitute for hydrogenated base stocks.
TIME LINE: 3-5 years
iii)A high polyunsaturated substitute for use in industrial applications.
TIME LINE: 5-10 years

The primary targets for improved soy-meal are;
i)Low phytate, low indigestible carbohydrates. TIME LINE: < 3 years
ii)Ensure greater than 48% crude protein meal. TIME LINE:3-5 years
iii)Enhance functionality for specific end users. TIME LINE: 3-5 years
iv) Enhance essential amino acid balance to support nutritional needs of poultry and swine. TIME
LINE: 3-5 years

Develop analytical approaches to ensure the following:
i)Rapid and accurate seed constituent analysis for both breeding programs and point-of-sale.
TIME LINE: 3 years
ii)Genetic markers for rapid movement of genes into elite germplasm and to preserve the identity of
soybeans with altered traits. TIME LINE: 5-10 years

B. Characterize the Molecular Basis for Changes in Seed Composition

To more efficiently create soybeans with improved quality for food, feed, or industrial use, the molecular basis
for changes in seed composition must be characterized. Some information describing the inheritance of phytate,
fatty acids, amino acids, and carbohydrates have been reported. Additional research is needed to elucidate the
genetic basis of oil and protein accumulation. In addition more research is required to understand the genetic
and metabolic interrelationships among the following seed constituents.

i)Characterize molecular basis for changes in phytate. TIME LINE: < 3 years
ii) Characterize molecular basis for changes in carbohydrates.

TIME LINE: 3-5 years
iii)Characterize molecular basis for changes in oil quality, protein quality (amino acids), and
protein quantity. TIME LINE: 5-10 years
iv) Characterize molecular basis for interrelationships among seed constituents, such as protein and
oil interactions and interactions among fatty acid constituents.
TIME LINE: 3 to 5 years.

C. Identify and Quantify the Effect of Environment on Seed Composition and the Impact of
Altered Seed Composition on Agronomic Performance

Because genotype x environmental interactions may impact the altered seed compositional types, there is a need
to assess the differences in response of the altered types versus the unaltered types across environments. This
will help determine whether the altered types have wide or narrow adaptability and whether they have utility as
commodity-wide varieties or if they will be more suited for speciality or contract production. Two strategies
should be used. The first is to grow the altered and unaltered types over a wide range of environments (years
and locations across the USA) employing the range of cultural practices used by U.S. soybean producers.
Based on the initial results, the second strategy should look at specific factors that account for the major aspects
of the genotype x environment interactions.
TIME LINE: 3-10 years depending on trait

D. Determining the Value of the Altered Genotypes for Human and Animal Consumption

Ultimate consumers of soybeans should test the genotypes developed with altered traits. For humans, the
emphasis should be on the functionality, utility, quality, and nutritional aspects. For animals, feeding trials
should be conducted on poultry and swine to determine and quantify the effect on animal performance. These
studies will provide information on the utility of these improved germplasmand should serve as the basis for
additional economic analysis. This information should be used to assess the market potential. TIME LINE: 3
to 5 years depending on trait


Pathogens (such as nematodes and microbial agents) and pests (including insects and weeds) cause significant
economic losses if uncontrolled. Soybean breeders have been highly successful in incorporating resistance to
some of the major pathogens for which resistance genes are known. Today, genetic resistance is the primary
tool used by producers for managing these pathogens and preserving soybean profitability. A few diseases,
such as bacterial blight and pustule and northern and southern stem canker, are so well controlled that they are
now rarely seen by producers. Other pathogens, such assuch asHeterodera glycines(soybean cyst nematode)
and Phythophthora sojae, are well known to producers because they must select varieties with resistance to the
prevalent races in their region. The durability of resistance to all pathogens and pests must be increased so that
new races are not successfully breaking the available resistance in soybeans.

Insects can produce substantial losses in soybeans, particularly in the southern U.S.A. Defoliation damage is
produced by several species of Lepidopterans in the family Noctuidae, whereas stinkbugs (Hemiptera:
Pentatomidae) can cause significant seed injury. No insect resistant varieties with competitive yield and other
requisite qualities have been developed despite breeding efforts spanning 30 years. Thus, implementation of
insect resistance is a major challenge that still confronts soybean breeders. Use of transgenic and DNA marker
technologies should accelerate achievement of this goal. Separate breeding approaches for defoliators and
stink bugs may be required.

Additionally, resistance genes do not exist or are unknown for a number of pests and pathogens. These include
pathogens of regional significance, such as Sclerotinia, viruses, Macrophomina phaseolina(charcoal rot),
Septoriabrown spot, and Meloidogyne spp(root knot nematodes). In addition, new soybean pests and
pathogens are emerging as economic threats. In the U.S.A., pathogens such as Fusarium solani(cause of
sudden death syndrome; SDS) and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (white mold) are increasing in importance.
Pathogens, such as Phakopsora mebomiae(soybean rust) and Dactaliochaeta glycines(red leaf blotch), cause

serious disease loss in other soybean productions regions of the world. The need to control these pathogens
must be anticipated, even though they are not yet in the United States.

The identification of resistance genes is critical in both conventional and molecular soybean research. Soybean
researchers are increasingly recognizing that soybean yield depends not only on host genetics, but also on those
of the pathogens and pests.

A. Comprehensive Evaluation of Elite and Exotic Germplasm Collections for New Pest Resistance

The extent of disease damage depends on the genetics of both the soybean varieties and the pathogens: disease
is an interactionbetween the two organisms. Considerable Federal, state, and private industry resources have
been expended to protect diversity in soybean germplasm and to utilize it for genetic improvement of adapted
varieties. In contrast, the preservation and assessment of diversity in soybean pathogens have been largely
dependent on individual scientists. An extensive, genetically diverse collection of soybean pathogens is
essential for identifying novel genes for resistance in soybean, understanding pathogen genomics, and
improving disease resistance.

Genes for resistance to soybean cyst nematode (SCN) and phytophthora root rot have been incorporated into
adapted soybean varieties. However, the threat of new biological isolates of SCN or Phytophthora rot as well as
emerging diseases such as white mold and SDS are problems that need immediate attention. To ensure
continuing resistance, the USDA Soybean Germplasm Collection and other collections of the world must be
evaluated for new sources for use in breeding programs for pest resistance. TIME LINE: 3 - 5 years

B. Develop More Efficient Strategies to Evaluate Pest Resistance

Consistent, reliable, and cost effective systems to assay soybean resistance need to be developed for many
soybean pests. Sources of uniform, genetically defined strains of pathogens, nematodes, and insects need to be
made available for soybean breeding programs. An important component of pest assay systems is the capability
to rapidly evaluate many segregating lines. These systems may be most efficiently accomplished in a
laboratory or greenhouse. Full-season screening of lines in protected or natural environments that are
artificially or naturally inoculated/infested may be the optimal evaluation system for certain pests/pathogens.
Adequate containment protocols need to be developed in situations where resistant strains of
pathogens/nematodes/insects are assayed. Development of molecular assay systems, including the use of high
throughput marker-assisted selection, are important new technologies that need to be adapted for rapid pest
resistance assays.

Funding for maintenance of pathogen/nematode strains in culture is needed so that they can be made
available as needed for soybean breeding programs. Soybean cyst nematode, Sclerotiniaspp and
Phytophthoraspp strains are particularly important pathogens for contemporary soybean breeding
objectives. Culturing of green, southern green, and brown stinkbugs, soybean looper, velvetbean caterpillar,
corn earworm, bean leaf beetle, and Mexican bean beetle should be supported at strategic laboratories so
that sufficient numbers can be made available as needed for soybean breeding programs. TIME LINE: < 3

C. Identify the Molecular, Cellular, and Organismal Bases of Host-pathogen Interactions

To understand the complexities of signaling and interactions among host and pest genomes, initial research
should be based on association studies between host germplasm resistance/susceptibility characteristics and pest
germplasm virulence/avirulence characteristics.
i)Molecular marker association studies based on pedigrees and segregating populations should be
conducted to identify genomic regions (QTL) ofresistance/susceptibility and virulence/avirulence
TIME LINE: < 3 years
ii)Candidate genes for resistance/susceptibility and virulence/avirulence from QTL regions and
EST libraries should be identified. TIME LINE: < 3 years

iii) Resistance/susceptibility or virulence/avirulence phenotypes should be associated with allelic
sequence variants. TIME LINE: 3-5 years
iv) Gene expression (messenger RNA, protein, metabolites) profiles should be associated with
phenotypic variants for resistance/susceptibility and virulence/avirulence. TIME LINE: 3-5 years;
and signal transduction pathways should be constructed from m-RNA, protein and metabolite
TIME LINE: 5-10 years
v) Expression profiles should be compared with signaling pathways in the host and pathogen.
TIME LINE: 5-10 years
vi)Develop bioinformatic tools to facilitate association studies.
TIME LINE: <3 years

D. Identify and Evaluate Novel Genes for Resistance

Molecular biology techniques will make it possible to modify resistance genes of soybeans to make them more
effective for pest control and to transfer pest resistance genes from other organisms into the soybeans. Research
currently is underway in soybeans to identify the DNA sequence of genes that confer resistance to the soybean
cyst nematode, Phytophthora rot, and other pests. After the DNA sequence is identified, it should be engineered
by molecular techniques to develop forms of the gene that are more effective for pest control. Similar research
in other organisms will provide novel genes that can be transformed into soybeans and evaluated for their
effectiveness. For example, the DNA that controls formation of the enzyme oxalate oxidase in other organisms
has been transferred to soybeans and is being evaluated for its effectiveness in controlling white mold. The
insertion of insecticidal genes for insect resistance has been accomplished and research activities should be
increased in the future. TIME LINE: 3-5 years

E. Improve Durability of Pest Resistance

Historically, resistance to pathogens, insects and nematodes has limited longevity due to genetic variability
within these pests. Planting a resistant variety exerts selection pressure on the pest population, resulting in
populations that can overcome resistance in soybeans. Research priorities in this area include:
i)Identify and deploy specific genes in soybeans that overcome virulence genes in pathogens or
pests. Develop effective rotation of varieties with different sources of resistance genes. TIME
LINE: 3-5 years
ii) Stacking or pyramiding of more than one gene for a specific pathogen or pest or groups of pests
should be pursued. TIME LINE: 5-10 years
iii) Engineered genes that affect the most vulnerable part of the pest life cycle should be targeted for
development. TIME LINE: 10 years or more


On February 23rdand 24th, 2000, twenty-two expert researchers with knowledge of plant breeding, plant
physiology, plant pathology, entomology, nematology, molecular biology, functional genomics, and seed
composition participated in a two-day workshop hosted by the United Soybean Board Production Committee.
The workshop was planned by: Dr. Dwayne Buxton, National Program Leader for the Agricultural Research
Service in Oilseeds and Bioscience; Dr. Roger Boerma, Research Professor and Coordinator of the University
of Georgia Center for Soybean Improvement; Maureen Kelly of AgSource, Inc., a subcontractor with the United
Soybean Board focusing on Federal Research Coordination; and Kent Van Amburg, Production Committee
Manager for the United Soybean Board of Smith, Bucklin and Associates. Elizabeth Vasquez of MCA
Consulting facilitated the workshop.



John All
University of Georgia
Department of Entomology
413 Biological Sciences Building
Athens, GA 30602
Telephone: 706.542.7589
Fax: 706.542.3872

William D. Beavis
Director of Science Programs
National Center for Genome Resources
1800-A Old Pecos Trail
Santa Fe, New Mexico 87214
Telephone: 800.450.4854

Thomas E. Carter, Jr.
3127 Ligon Street
Raleigh, NC 27607
Telephone: 919.513.1480
Fax: 919.856.4598

Perry B. Cregan
Building 006, Room 100
Beltsville, MD 20705
Telephone: 301.504.5070
Fax: 301.504.5728

Brian Diers
University of Illinois
1102 South Goodwin Avenue
Turner Hall
Urbana, IL 61801
Telephone: 217.265.4062
Fax: 217.333.8718

Walter R. Fehr
Iowa State University
1212 Agronomy
Ames, IA 50011
Telephone: 515.294.6865
Fax: 515.294.4629

Craig R. Grau
University of Wisconsin-Madison
1630 Linden Drive
Madison, WI 53706-1598
Telephone: 608.262.6289
Fax: 608.263.2626

Stephen Kresovich
Cornell University
Institute for Genomic Diversity
158 Biotechnology Building
Ithaca, NY 14853-2703
Telephone: 607.255.1492
Fax: 607.255.6249

Bruce M. Luzzi
Pioneer HiBred International
7230 NW 70
P.O. Box 177
Johnston, IA 50131-0177
Telephone: 515.253.2270
Fax: 515.254.2680

Randall Nelson
University of Illinois
1101 West Peabody Drive
Urbana, IL 61801
Telephone: 217.244.4346
Fax: 217.333.4639

Terry Niblack
University of Missouri
108 Waters Hall
Columbia, MO 65211
Telephone: 573.882.7333
Fax: 573.882.0588

Greg Noel
1102 S. Goodwin Avenue
Urbana, Illinois 61801
Telephone: 217.244.3254

James H. Orf
University of Minnesota
Department of Agronomy & Plant
St. Paul, MN 55108
Telephone: 612.625.8275
Fax: 612.625.1268

Dan Phillips
University of Georgia
Griffin Campus
1109 Experiment Street
Griffin, GA 30223
Telephone: 770.412.4009
Fax: 770.228.7305

Larry C. Purcell
University of Arkansas
276 Altheimer Drive
Fayetteville, AR 72703
Telephone: 501.575.3983
Fax: 501.575.3975

Grover Shannon
University of Missouri
Delta Center
P.O. Box 160
Portageville, MO 63873
Telephone: 573-379-5431
Fax: 573.379.5873

David A. Sleper
University of Missouri
210 Waters Hall
Department ofAgronomy
Columbia, MO 65211
Telephone: 573.882.7320
Fax: 573.882.1467

James E. Specht
University of Nebraska
Department of Agronomy
322 Keim Hall
Lincoln, NE 68583-0915
Telephone: 402.472.1536
Fax: 402.472.7904

Alan K. Walker
634 East Lincolnway
Ames, IA 50021
Telephone: 515.232.7170
Fax: 515.232.6705

Kathleen Warner
National Center for Agricultural
Utilization Research
1815 North University Street
Room 3032
Peoria, IL 61604
Telephone: 309.681.6584
Fax: 309.681.6668

Jim Wilcox
Purdue University
Agronomy Department
West Lafayette, IN 47907-1150
Telephone: 765.494.8074
Fax: 765.496.3452

Richard F. Wilson
North Carolina State University
4114 Williams Hall
100 Derieux Street
Raleigh, NC 27695-7620
Telephone: 919.515.3171
Fax: 919.515.7959


H. Roger Boerma
University of Georgia
311 Plant Sciences Building
Athens, GA 30602-7272
Telephone: 706.542.0927
Fax: 706.542.0560

Dwayne R. Buxton
Beltsville Office Facility
5601 Sunnyside Avenue
Room 4-2210
Beltsville, MD 20705-5139
Telephone: 301.504.4670
Fax: 301.504.5987

Maureen C. Kelly
AgSource, Inc. – USB Subcontractor
600 Pennsylvania Avenue SE,
Suite 320
Washington, DC 20003
Telephone: 202.969.8902
Fax: 202.969.7036

Kent Van Amburg
USB Production Committee Manager
Smith Bucklin and Associates
540 Maryville Centre Drive
Suite LL5
St. Louis, MO 63141
Telephone: 314.579.1598
Fax: 314.579.1599

Elizabeth Vasquez (Facilitator)
Management Consulting Associates
5208 Marlyn Drive
Bethesda, MD 20816-1949
Telephone: 301.229.1655
Fax: 301.229.0473