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Subgenus Glycine

The genus Glycine is divided into two subgenera: 'Glycine' (with perennial species) and 'Soja' (with annual species). Subgenus Soja includes the species Glycine max (cultivated soybean) and its wild progenitor, Glycine soja both of which are diploids (2n = 40) native to Northeastern Asia. Subgenus Glycine currently consists of 30 wild perennial species, with diploids (2n = 38,40) indigenous to Australia (one specie also native to adjacent Papua New Guinea) and with allopolyploids (2n = 78,80) having colonized various South and West Pacific Islands (Chung & Singh 2008; Sherman-Broyles et al., 2014). It is likely that additional wild perennial species will be added because there are areas within Australia that are relatively inaccessible and are poorly collected, particularly in some areas of high species diversity (Gonzalez-Orozco et al., 2012). The wild perennial species have a wide degree of diversity, growing in different habitats including: rocky outcrops, desert, sandy beaches and subtropical and temperate forest (Sherman-Broyles et al., 2014).

Species in the genus Glycine (L.) Merr., have been assigned to different genome groups first established based on hybrid incompatibility, cytogenetics and shared isozyme profiles. Currently there are eight perennial genome groups that have been further refined by molecular data (reviewed in Sherman-Broyles et al., 2014 and Ratnaparkhe et al 2011).

All pictures were taken by Eun-Young Hwang from the Department of Plant Science and Landscape Architecture, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA.

Data for this project

Click here to view all publicly available data (sequence, alignment statistics, and methods).

Click here to explore Glycine species specific data.

Glycine canescens F. J. Herm.

G. canescens is a perennial twining plant covered in gray hairs (conescent). Seed pods are curved at the apex and are 5-7 seeded, seeds are olive-green to brownish-purple.
G. canescens is a diploid (2n = 40) member of the A-genome group of subgenus Glycine. It is genetically and morphologicall diverse species, comprising several different subpopulations; it has a wide range of habitats and is found geographically throughout the six territories in Australia (Gonzalez-Orozco et al., 2012).

Glycine cyrtoloba Tind.

G. cyrotoloba is a perennial plant with twining and stiff stems. G. cyrotoloba pods are curved and somewhat mottled in appearance containing 3-9 seeds that and are dark brown to black in color (Tindale, MD et al., 1984).
G. cyrotoloba is a diploi (2n=40) member of the C-genome of Glycine. It is found along the coast of Queensland and Northern New South Wales (Ratnaparkhe et al 2011 ; Gonzalez-Orozco et al., 2012).

Glycine dolichocarpa Tateishi & Ohashi

G. dolichocarpa ia a twining plant with long straight dark brown pods with 5-7 seeds. Seeds are square and dark brown in color.
G. dolichocarpa is an allotetraploid (2n = 4x = 80) formed by hybridizatoin between G. syndetika and G. tomentella D3 (both 2n = 40). (This species was formerly part of the Glycine tomentella species complex and was referred to as G. tomentella T2.) It has a limited Australian range in Queensland, but like several other Glycine allopolyploids, has colonized islands of the Pacific Ocean (in this case Taiwan) where no perennial diploid Glycine species have been found ( Ratnaparkhe et al 2011; Harbert et al 2014).

Glycine falcata Benth.

G. falcata is unique among perennial Glycine species in that it does not form a vine but rather short, erect stems from a fibrous woody root system instead of the more common taproot. Seeds are round and smooth similar to the annual species.
G. falcata is a diploid (2n = 40) and is the sole member of the F-genome. It is sister to the remainder of subgenus Glycine, and is distinctive ecologically, characteristically growing in the black soil region of Queensland and possessing both chasmogamous and below- ground cleistogamous flowers, the latter producing geocarpic fruits (Ratnaparkhe et al 2011; Gonzalez-Orozco et al., 2012).

Glycine stenophita B.E. Pfeil & Tind.

G. stenophita is a scrambling or climbing perennial that is glabrous or with sparse white hairs covering the stems. Pods are 4 to 6 seeded and seeds are generally barrel shaped with some variation in shape from elliptical to square.
G. stenophita is a diploid (2n = 40) member of the B-genome group. It occurs in the Australian states of Queensland and New South Wales (Ratnaparkhe et al 2011; Gonzalez-Orozco et al., 2012).

Glycine syndetika B.E. Pfeil & Craven

G. syndetika is a twining perennial plant with three leathery, often persistent leaflets. Flowers are somewhat clustered towards to the top of the inflorescences and pods contain 4-9 relatively large square seeds (Pfeil. BE et al., 2006).
G. syndetika is diploid (2n = 40) member of the A-genome clade. (This species was formerly part of the Glycine tomentella species complex and was referred to as G. tomentella D4. ) It is has a restricted range in the Eastern Queensland region of Australia (Ratnaparkhe et al 2011; Gonzalez-Orozco et al., 2012).

Glycine tomentella D3

G. tomentella D3 is a diploid (2n = 40) member of the complex of diploid and tetraploid taxa lumped under the name "G. tomentella" but which are reproductively isolated species (e.g., G. tomentella D3 belongs to the D-genome, whereas G. tomentella D1 belongs to the E-genome). It hybridized with G. syndetika (formerly "G. tomentella D4") to form the allotetraploid, G. dolichocarpa.
G. tomentella D3 is distinguished fromother diploid members of Glycine tomentella species complex by ovated to broadly lanceolate leaves, a seed coat or testa that is dark brown to black (to see the testa the persistent endocarp must be removed) and pods 1.5 to 2 cm long with 2-6 seeds per pod (Hill, 1999).
G. tomentella D3 occurs in the Australian territory of Queensland and the Eastern portion of the nearby is land country of Papua New Guinea (Ratnaparkhe et al 2011; Gonzalez-Orozco et al., 2012).

Glycine tomentella species complex

The Glycine tomentella species complex includes four unnamed diploid and "four" unnamed tetraploid species referred to by D for diploid and T for tetraploid followed by a number to distinguish genetically distinct species.